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The minuscule and the immense can reveal quite a bit about each other.

Header: Particle astro

In particle physics, scientists study the properties of the smallest bits of matter and how they interact. Another branch of physics—astrophysics—creates and tests theories about what’s happening across our vast universe.

While particle physics and astrophysics appear to focus on opposite ends of a spectrum, scientists in the two fields actually depend on one another. Several current lines of inquiry link the very large to the very small.

The seeds of cosmic structure

For one, particle physicists and astrophysicists both ask questions about the growth of the early universe. 

In her office at Stanford University, Eva Silverstein explains her work parsing the mathematical details of the fastest period of that growth, called cosmic inflation. 

“To me, the subject is particularly interesting because you can understand the origin of structure in the universe,” says Silverstein, a professor of physics at Stanford and the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology. “This paradigm known as inflation accounts for the origin of structure in the most simple and beautiful way a physicist can imagine.” 

Scientists think that after the Big Bang, the universe cooled, and particles began to combine into hydrogen atoms. This process released previously trapped photons—elementary particles of light. 

The glow from that light, called the cosmic microwave background, lingers in the sky today. Scientists measure different characteristics of the cosmic microwave background to learn more about what happened in those first moments after the Big Bang.

According to scientists’ models, a pattern that first formed on the subatomic level eventually became the underpinning of the structure of the entire universe. Places that were dense with subatomic particles—or even just virtual fluctuations of subatomic particles—attracted more and more matter. As the universe grew, these areas of density became the locations where galaxies and galaxy clusters formed. The very small grew up to be the very large.

Scientists studying the cosmic microwave background hope to learn about more than just how the universe grew—it could also offer insight into dark matter, dark energy and the mass of the neutrino.

“It’s amazing that we can probe what was going on almost 14 billion years ago,” Silverstein says. “We can’t learn everything that was going on, but we can still learn an incredible amount about the contents and interactions.”

For many scientists, “the urge to trace the history of the universe back to its beginnings is irresistible,” wrote theoretical physicist Stephen Weinberg in his 1977 book The First Three Minutes. The Nobel laureate added, “From the start of modern science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, physicists and astronomers have returned again and again to the problem of the origin of the universe.”

Searching in the dark

Particle physicists and astrophysicists both think about dark matter and dark energy. Astrophysicists want to know what made up the early universe and what makes up our universe today. Particle physicists want to know whether there are undiscovered particles and forces out there for the finding.

“Dark matter makes up most of the matter in the universe, yet no known particles in the Standard Model [of particle physics] have the properties that it should possess,” says Michael Peskin, a professor of theoretical physics at SLAC. “Dark matter should be very weakly interacting, heavy or slow-moving, and stable over the lifetime of the universe.”

There is strong evidence for dark matter through its gravitational effects on ordinary matter in galaxies and clusters. These observations indicate that the universe is made up of roughly 5 percent normal matter, 25 percent dark matter and 70 percent dark energy. But to date, scientists have not directly observed dark energy or dark matter.

“This is really the biggest embarrassment for particle physics,” Peskin says. “However much atomic matter we see in the universe, there’s five times more dark matter, and we have no idea what it is.” 

But scientists have powerful tools to try to understand some of these unknowns. Over the past several years, the number of models of dark matter has been expanding, along with the number of ways to detect it, says Tom Rizzo, a senior scientist at SLAC and head of the theory group.

Some experiments search for direct evidence of a dark matter particle colliding with a matter particle in a detector. Others look for indirect evidence of dark matter particles interfering in other processes or hiding in the cosmic microwave background. If dark matter has the right properties, scientists could potentially create it in a particle accelerator such as the Large Hadron Collider.

Physicists are also actively hunting for signs of dark energy. It is possible to measure the properties of dark energy by observing the motion of clusters of galaxies at the largest distances that we can see in the universe.

“Every time that we learn a new technique to observe the universe, we typically get lots of surprises,” says Marcelle Soares-Santos, a Brandeis University professor and a researcher on the Dark Energy Survey. “And we can capitalize on these new ways of observing the universe to learn more about cosmology and other sides of physics.”

Expanding the search for dark matter

Oct. 17th, 2017 08:07 pm
[syndicated profile] symmetry_feed

At a recent meeting, scientists shared ideas for searching for dark matter on the (relative) cheap.

Scientists in search of dark matter

Thirty-one years ago, scientists made their first attempt to find dark matter with a particle detector in a South Dakota mine. 

Since then, researchers have uncovered enough clues to think dark matter makes up approximately 26.8 percent of all the matter and energy in the universe. They think it forms a sort of gravitational scaffolding for the galaxies and galaxy clusters our telescopes do reveal, shaping the structure of our universe while remaining unseen. 

These conclusions are based on indirect evidence such as the behavior of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Direct detection experiments—ones designed to actually sense a dark matter particle pinging off the nucleus of an atom—have yet to find what they’re looking for. Nor has dark matter been seen at the Large Hadron Collider. That invisible, enigmatic material, that Greta Garbo of particle physics, still wants to be alone. 

It could be that researchers are just looking in the wrong place. Much of the search for dark matter has focused on particles called WIMPs, weakly interacting massive particles. But interest in WIMP alternatives has been growing, prompting the development of a variety of small-scale research projects to investigate some of the most promising prospects. 

In March more than 100 scientists met at the University of Maryland for “Cosmic Visions: New Ideas in Dark Matter,” a gathering to take the pulse of the post-WIMP dark matter landscape for the Department of Energy. That pulse was surprisingly strong. Organizers recently published a white paper detailing the results.

The conference came about partly because, “it seemed a good time to get everyone together to see what each experiment was doing, where they reinforced each other and where they did something new,” says Natalia Toro, a theorist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and a member of the Cosmic Visions Scientific Advisory Committee. What she and many other participants didn’t expect, Toro says, was just how many good ideas would be presented. 

Almost 50 experiments in various stages of development were presented during three days of talks, and a similar number of potential experiments were discussed.

Some of the experiments presented would be designed to look for dark matter particles that are lighter than traditional WIMPs, or for the new fundamental forces through which such particles could interact. Others would look for oscillating forces produced by dark matter particles trillions of times lighter than the electron. Still others would look for different dark matter candidates, such as primordial black holes. 

The scientists at the workshop were surprised by how small and relatively inexpensive many of the experiments could be, says Philip Schuster, a particle theorist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

“‘Small’ and ‘inexpensive’ depend on what technology you’re using, of course,” Schuster says. DOE is prepared to provide funding to the tune of $10 million (still a fraction of the cost of a current WIMP experiment), and many of the experiments could cost in the $1 to $2 million range.

Several factors work together to lessen the cost. For example, advances in detector technology and quantum sensors have made technology cheaper. Then there are small detectors that can be placed at already-existing large facilities like the Heavy Photon Search, a dark-sector search at Jefferson Lab. “It’s basically a table-top detector, as opposed to CMS and ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider, which took years to build and weigh as much as a battleship,” Schuster says.

Experimentalist Joe Incandela of the University of California, Santa Barbara and one of the coordinators of the Cosmic Visions effort, has a simple explanation for this current explosion of ideas. “There’s a good synergy between the technology and interest in dark matter,” he says. 

Incandela says he is feeling the synergy himself. He is a former spokesperson for CMS, a battleship-class experiment in which he continues to play an active role while also developing the Light Dark Matter Experiment, which would use a high-resolution silicon-based calorimeter that he originally helped develop for CMS to search for an alternative to WIMPs. 

“It occurred to me that this calorimeter technology could very useful for low-mass dark matter searches,” he says. “My hope is that, starting soon, and spanning roughly five years, the funding—and not very much is needed—will be available to support experiments that can cover a lot more of the landscape where dark matter may be hiding. It’s very exciting.”


Check out our printable poster about the expanding search for dark matter.

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Joe and Eddie want to increase the price of their rare apple cider, Justin asks Tony to be a witness at the wedding and Emma decides to accept Jim's advice on her campaign.

Orville, Round Six

Oct. 17th, 2017 09:55 am
billroper: (Default)
[personal profile] billroper
We actually watched this last week. It just took me until today to remember to post about it. :)

Still science fiction. Still fun.

I was surprised to see that Seth MacFarlane is a Tenzil Kem fan though...
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Posted by Bruce Schneier

A security flaw in Infineon smart cards and TPMs allows an attacker to recover private keys from the public keys. Basically, the key generation algorithm sometimes creates public keys that are vulnerable to Coppersmith's attack:

While all keys generated with the library are much weaker than they should be, it's not currently practical to factorize all of them. For example, 3072-bit and 4096-bit keys aren't practically factorable. But oddly enough, the theoretically stronger, longer 4096-bit key is much weaker than the 3072-bit key and may fall within the reach of a practical (although costly) factorization if the researchers' method improves.

To spare time and cost, attackers can first test a public key to see if it's vulnerable to the attack. The test is inexpensive, requires less than 1 millisecond, and its creators believe it produces practically zero false positives and zero false negatives. The fingerprinting allows attackers to expend effort only on keys that are practically factorizable.

This is the flaw in the Estonian national ID card we learned about last month.

The paper isn't online yet. I'll post it when it is.

Ouch. This is a bad vulnerability, and it's in systems -- like the Estonian national ID card -- that are critical.

Tooth Interruptus

Oct. 16th, 2017 10:37 pm
billroper: (Default)
[personal profile] billroper
So I was supposed to go in and get the crown on my implant this morning at 9 AM.

And then the phone rang. It was the dentist's office. It seems that the lab had shipped them a crown. It just wasn't my crown. Could I come in on Tuesday and have the correct crown installed once they had it in hand?

"Sure, I can do that. It's a much better idea than having the wrong crown put in."

So now I have an appointment for 8 AM on Tuesday. I could have gone in at 11 AM, but I have a meeting then.

*sigh*

I hate mornings...
pyoor_excuse: (house)
[personal profile] pyoor_excuse
So yesterday we rearranged our afternoon to allow a craigslist flake to come and view the car. I actually quite liked him, despite the attempt to kill us both when while test driving we ended up with him going the wrong way up a dual carriageway (divided highway) after performing 3/4ths of what I suspect was a U turn of dubious legality. Still, seemed nice. However, he appears to be suffering from acute craigslist flakitis.

He didn't bring money, though, or any way to get the car back (?!). This I only discovered at the end of the discussion, but being in a relatively good mood I was fine with him picking it up today. This decision is part of the reason I'm in a very grumpy mood now.

So today I got a message this morning saying he couldn't get off work early - and eventually got a message that he couldn't find someone to give him a ride down to collect the car. He lives up towards Seattle.

Which is more pissy because I'd put off someone else and said it might sell. Now that person's disappeared too, which leaves me feeling really quite annoyed.

Then I made the mistake of going to Lowes, because they sent us a discount voucher and we wanted something to put down on the floors to try and prevent quite so much draft coming in. Partly because the void under the house is filled with rat urine, partly because it was beginning to smell pretty damp (like underhouse void), and partly because we want to heat it enough to keep damp at bay. It's currently at a whopping 10C / 50F (which I didn't twig was only 10C, so I might nudge it up a bit tomorrow).

Anyhow, so I gathered together some stuff (plumbing stuff here is suuuuper expensive, btw). And trekked round the shop in search of the underlayment which is what was in the house before... and which some people still seem to recommend. The idea in my head being what I don't use up now would be useful on the house later...

Only I had an appointment at 10, so I needed to be quick through Lowes. After trailing around and not being able to find it, I asked an assistant. Who after looking blank, and eventually pulling out a tablet to try and locate it after I showed her on my phone what I was after, decided she didn't know where it was. Then said I should find someone from flooring to ask (there was no-one in flooring when I walked through it), then informed me really helpfully that "it'll be out on a shelf though".

Uh hu.

And I thought it would be on the ceiling, no-fucking-wonder I couldn't find it... I managed to restrain myself from saying out loud.

At this point I realised I'd be late if I spent any more time looking for this stuff and threw the stuff I had collected onto a shelf*. Then I made my way over to the appointment where the guy was late (but didn't apologise)...

...although he seems competent and his quote is about what we'd expect based off other things.

And then, because I can't get a remodel permit without the roof truss diagram (and we're waiting on a quote from our fourth contractor before we can get those) I'm kinda stalled out. I spent the day installing the plastic sheeting, the hammer-stapler-thing is at least a bit therapeutic. But that and the little bit of plumbing is kinda it until we can get the contractors to do the roof.

The city were pretty hazy on whether we could take down drywall, but the job that really needs doing is removing the electrics. The drywall can come down in the demo party, but that party will be a million times easier if there's no electrics in those walls to worry about. Similarly, lopping off the plumbing would be nice, but I don't have my bucket of shitty plumbing parts available anymore, and again, pluming stuff here is super expensive, so I'm resisting doing more to that than I have to, keeping it to a really minimal leak-stopping.

Tomorrow I'm planning to turn off the water and disconnect the leaking pipework. But after that there's going to be a bit of a mental debate about how much I can do. This weekend we might take down the carport - which is partly a shame because it's handy to have, but it's in the way of the electrician.

It's irritating, because what I'd scheduled tomorrow was going to look at the car we'd like to buy. But again, because of craigslist flake syndrome I can't.

Oh, but good news - our washer has found a productive home. It took a while, but freecycle worked :)

* I would not normally do this, but I'm not wasting my discount voucher on a few small items if I can get something bigger that we need, and after the lack of help I was feeling pretty pissed off.

The problem

Oct. 16th, 2017 08:16 pm
liv: cast iron sign showing etiolated couple drinking tea together (argument)
[personal profile] liv
Sexual violence against women and girls is endemic. There's an absolute mountain of evidence that this is the case, from the experiences of my friends to any number of posts on social media to rigorous studies. A big part of the reason I decided to identify as a feminist is because women are routinely denied bodily autonomy and feminism seems to be the only political movement that cares about this.

links and personal observations about sexual violence against women )

I absolutely believe everybody else's experiences, people I know and strangers writing brave, brave columns and blog posts. I am just a total outlier, and I really shouldn't be. So I'm signal boosting others' accounts, because I know that I needed to be made aware of the scale of the problem, and perhaps some other people reading this could also use the information.
[syndicated profile] symmetry_feed

For the first time, experiments have seen both light and gravitational waves released by a single celestial crash.

Illustration of neutron star collision

Today scientists announced the first verified observation of a neutron star collision. LIGO detected gravitational waves radiating from two neutron stars as they circled and merged, triggering 50 additional observational groups to jump into action and find the glimmer of this ancient explosion.

This observation represents the first time experiments have seen both light and gravitational waves from a single celestial crash, unlocking a new era of multi-messenger astronomy.

On August 17 at 7:41 a.m. Eastern Time, NASA astronomer Julie McEnery had just returned from an early morning row on the Anacostia River when her experiment, the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope, sent out an automatic alert that it had just recorded a burst of gamma rays coming from the southern constellation Hydra. By itself, this wasn’t novel; the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor instrument on Fermi has seen approximately 2 gamma-ray outbursts per day since its launch in 2008. 

“Forty minutes later, I got an email from a colleague at LIGO saying that our trigger has a friend and that we should buckle up,” McEnery says.

Most astronomy experiments, including the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope, watch for light or other particles emanating from distant stars and galaxies. The LIGO experiment, on the other hand, listens for gravitational waves. Gravitational waves are the equivalent of cosmic tremors, but instead of rippling through layers of rock and dirt, they stretch and compress space-time itself.

Exactly 1.7 seconds before Fermi noticed the gamma ray burst, a set of extremely loud gravitational waves had shaken LIGO’s dual detectors.

“The sky positions overlapped, strongly suggesting the two signals were coming from the same astronomical event,” says Daniel Holz, a professor at the University of Chicago and member of LIGO collaboration and the Dark Energy Survey Gravitational Wave group.

LIGO reconstructed the location and distance of the event and sent an alert to their allied astronomers. About 12 hours later, right after sunset, multiple astronomical surveys found a glowing blue dot just above the horizon in the area LIGO predicted.

“It lasted for two weeks, and we observed it for about an hour every night,” says Jim Annis, a researcher at the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the lead institution on the Dark Energy Survey. “We used telescopes that could see everything from low-energy radio waves all the way to high-energy X-rays, giving us a detailed image of what happened immediately after the initial collision.”

Neutron stars are roughly the size of the island of Nantucket but have more mass than the sun. They have such a strong gravitational pull that all their matter has been squeezed and transformed into a single, giant atomic nucleus consisting entirely of neutrons.

“Right before two neutron stars collide, they circle each other about 100 times a second,” Annis says. “As they collide, huge electromagnetic tornados erupt at the poles and material is sprayed out in all directions at close to the speed of light.”

As they merge, neutron stars release a quick burst of gamma radiation and then a spray of decompressing neutron star matter. Exotic heavy elements form and decay, dumping enough energy that the surface reaches temperatures of 20,000 degrees Kelvin. That's almost four times hotter than the surface of the sun and much brighter. Scientists theorize that a good portion of the heavy elements in our universe, such as gold, originated in neutron star collisions and other massively energetic events.

Since coming online in September 2015, the US-based LIGO collaboration and their Italy-based partners, the Virgo collaboration, have reported detecting five bursts of gravitational waves. Up until now, each of these observations has come from a collision of black holes.

“When two black holes collide, they emit gravitational waves but no light,” Holz says. “But this event released an enormous amount of light and numerous astronomical surveys saw it. Hearing and seeing the event provides a goldmine of information, and we will be mining the data for years to come.”

This is a Rosetta Stone-type discovery, Holz says. “We’ve learned about the processes that neutron stars are undergoing as they fling out matter and how this matter synthesizes into some of the elements we find on Earth, such as gold and platinum,” he says. “In addition to teaching us about mysterious gamma-ray bursts, we can use this event to calculate the expansion rate of the universe. We will be able to estimate the age and composition of the universe in an entirely new way.”

For McEnery, the discovery ushers in a new age of cooperation between gravitational-wave experiments and experiments like her own.

“The light and gravitational waves from this collision raced each other across the cosmos for 130 million years and hit earth 1.7 seconds apart,” she says. “This shows that both are moving at the speed of light, as predicted by Einstein. This is what we’ve been hoping to see.”

Editor's note: See LIGO scientific publications here.

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Posted by Bruce Schneier

Mathy Vanhoef has just published a devastating attack against WPA2, the 14-year-old encryption protocol used by pretty much all wi-fi systems. Its an interesting attack, where the attacker forces the protocol to reuse a key. The authors call this attack KRACK, for Key Reinstallation Attacks

This is yet another of a series of marketed attacks; with a cool name, a website, and a logo. The Q&A on the website answers a lot of questions about the attack and its implications. And lots of good information in this ArsTechnica article.

There is an academic paper, too:

"Key Reinstallation Attacks: Forcing Nonce Reuse in WPA2," by Mathy Vanhoef and Frank Piessens.

Abstract: We introduce the key reinstallation attack. This attack abuses design or implementation flaws in cryptographic protocols to reinstall an already-in-use key. This resets the key's associated parameters such as transmit nonces and receive replay counters. Several types of cryptographic Wi-Fi handshakes are affected by the attack. All protected Wi-Fi networks use the 4-way handshake to generate a fresh session key. So far, this 14-year-old handshake has remained free from attacks, and is even proven secure. However, we show that the 4-way handshake is vulnerable to a key reinstallation attack. Here, the adversary tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key. This is achieved by manipulating and replaying handshake messages. When reinstalling the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number (nonce) and receive packet number (replay counter) are reset to their initial value. Our key reinstallation attack also breaks the PeerKey, group key, and Fast BSS Transition (FT) handshake. The impact depends on the handshake being attacked, and the data-confidentiality protocol in use. Simplified, against AES-CCMP an adversary can replay and decrypt (but not forge) packets. This makes it possible to hijack TCP streams and inject malicious data into them. Against WPA-TKIP and GCMP the impact is catastrophic: packets can be replayed, decrypted, and forged. Because GCMP uses the same authentication key in both communication directions, it is especially affected.

Finally, we confirmed our findings in practice, and found that every Wi-Fi device is vulnerable to some variant of our attacks. Notably, our attack is exceptionally devastating against Android 6.0: it forces the client into using a predictable all-zero encryption key.

I'm just reading about this now, and will post more information
as I learn it.

EDITED TO ADD: More news.

EDITED TO ADD: This meets my definition of brilliant. The attack is blindingly obvious once it's pointed out, but for over a decade no one noticed it.

EDITED TO ADD: Matthew Green has a blog post on what went wrong. The vulnerability is in the interaction between two protocols. At a meta level, he blames the opaque IEEE standards process:

One of the problems with IEEE is that the standards are highly complex and get made via a closed-door process of private meetings. More importantly, even after the fact, they're hard for ordinary security researchers to access. Go ahead and google for the IETF TLS or IPSec specifications -- you'll find detailed protocol documentation at the top of your Google results. Now go try to Google for the 802.11i standards. I wish you luck.

The IEEE has been making a few small steps to ease this problem, but they're hyper-timid incrementalist bullshit. There's an IEEE program called GET that allows researchers to access certain standards (including 802.11) for free, but only after they've been public for six months -- coincidentally, about the same time it takes for vendors to bake them irrevocably into their hardware and software.

This whole process is dumb and -- in this specific case -- probably just cost industry tens of millions of dollars. It should stop.

Nicholas Weaver explains why most people shouldn't worry about this:

So unless your Wi-Fi password looks something like a cat's hairball (e.g. ":SNEIufeli7rc" -- which is not guessable with a few million tries by a computer), a local attacker had the capability to determine the password, decrypt all the traffic, and join the network before KRACK.

KRACK is, however, relevant for enterprise Wi-Fi networks: networks where you needed to accept a cryptographic certificate to join initially and have to provide both a username and password. KRACK represents a new vulnerability for these networks. Depending on some esoteric details, the attacker can decrypt encrypted traffic and, in some cases, inject traffic onto the network.

But in none of these cases can the attacker join the network completely. And the most significant of these attacks affects Linux devices and Android phones, they don't affect Macs, iPhones, or Windows systems. Even when feasible, these attacks require physical proximity: An attacker on the other side of the planet can't exploit KRACK, only an attacker in the parking lot can.

Things I have done today

Oct. 16th, 2017 01:39 pm
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[personal profile] ghoti_mhic_uait
Finished a languishing application for an audio transcription job. Not sure whether I'll get it or not, but at least it's done now. Applied (successfully) for a website testing job. Both of these are self-employed, no guarantees that I'd get actual work from them but worth a try. Boggled at the adverts for 'work from home' jobs many of which are prison officers.

Dr. Frankenstein's Music Shop

Oct. 16th, 2017 07:23 am
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[personal profile] madfilkentist
The Museum für Musikinstrumente, part of the Grassi Museum in Leipzig, has some really strange instruments. Here are pictures of some of them, from my visit earlier this month.

Photos behind the cut )

Short Film News

Oct. 16th, 2017 10:36 am
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[personal profile] bugshaw
The Treehouse film I made last summer is premiering at St Neots Film Festival on Wed 8 Nov!
http://stneotsfilmfestival.co.uk/
I'll be going along with my big Film Premiere coat :-)
It will be made public on vimeo the next day and I can post it here if anyone's interested.

Dish Life (short with children being stem cells in petri dish) has made New York Times' Ten Things To Do In NYC This Week list (For Children section) - the director and scientist are over there now and having a great time.

Getting Things Done

Oct. 15th, 2017 09:25 pm
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[personal profile] billroper
Gretchen loaned me her laptop, which means that I was able to write up the things I owed for Windycon while watching the Cubs game tonight. Yay!

In other news, Halloween decorating is in full swing.

And I managed to get some time in the studio to audition some new plugins that I ended up buying. I hope to avoid buyer's remorse...

Archers' Summary, Sunday 15th October

Oct. 15th, 2017 11:08 pm
[syndicated profile] lowfield_archers_feed
Adam begins to like the idea of becoming a father, Lily offers advice to Pip about Toby and Lilian's discovers that her lie to Justin spoiled a surprise dinner he had planned.

Fitbit goal check

Oct. 15th, 2017 10:39 pm

A long weekend...

Oct. 15th, 2017 09:23 pm
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[personal profile] hrrunka
On Friday afternoon I collected my nephew from his course, taking the motorways there and back roads home as the M25 was being a car park along a stretch of the route home. In the evening I headed for Gravesend for gaming. Phil retired, but Lissa, A2 and I played a game of Diamant.

On Saturday I took my nephew down to Orpington so that he could show his ID to a bank. It is possible they may consider opening an account for him. Apart from a bit of shopping we didn't do much else. He watched TV. I spent half the afternoon asleep. In the evening we watched the second "Guardians of the Galaxy" movie. While I'd caught the general gist of the story while watching it in german, there was quite a bit more to it I clearly missed that time round.

This morning I caught the usual Sunday morning radio club Net, then went to the shops with my nephew, and then had a quiet afternoon. This evening I took him back to his lodgings, and this time the motorways were working well both ways, so the round trip only took about 90 minutes.
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